A district court in the Northern District of California rejected a claim by a putative class of wireless users that the First Amendment bars enforcement of their arbitration clause with their wireless provider. Roberts v. AT&T Mobility LLC, No. 15-cv-03418-EMC (N.D. Cal. Feb. 29, 2016). Plaintiffs did not dispute that their wireless service contracts contained an arbitration provision, but argued that the provision was unconstitutional on the theory that if the court were to compel arbitration, that would be state action violating their First Amendment rights to petition a court for redress of grievances. The court found no merit to plaintiffs’ assertion that the mere fact of judicial enforcement automatically establishes state action. In the decision on defendant’s motion to compel arbitration, District Judge Edward M. Chen noted that in many private contracts there are provisions that arguably affect access to the courts, such as choice of venue, choice of law, statutes of limitations, and limitations on damages provisions; although these provisions may be subject to restrictions imposed by statutory and/or common law, courts have not held that judicial enforcement of these provisions, particularly as found in contracts between private parties, amounts to state action or raises constitutional claims.