On May 21, 2018, President Trump signed into law a resolution disapproving the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau’s (“CFPB”) guidance on Indirect Auto Lending and Compliance with the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (“Indirect Auto Lending Guidance” or “Guidance”). In that Guidance, the CFPB expressed the view that certain indirect auto lenders—that is, lenders that coordinate with dealerships to provide auto loans to consumers—are subject to the Equal Credit Opportunity Act and its anti-discriminatory provisions.
The CFPB issued the Indirect Auto Lending Guidance in 2013 as a bulletin, not a formal rule, and did not submit it to Congress for review under the Congressional Review Act (“CRA”), which would have allowed Congress sixty days to disapprove the Guidance by simple majority vote in both houses. However, in March 2017, Senator Patrick Toomey of Pennsylvania requested that the Government Accountability Office (“GAO”) determine whether the Indirect Auto Lending Guidance is a “rule” under the CRA and therefore subject to the disapproval procedures. In an opinion issued on December 5, 2017, the GAO concluded that the Guidance is indeed a “rule” under the CRA—this was effectively treated as a trigger for the sixty-day clock, enabling Congress to exercise its powers under the CRA even though the Guidance was never submitted to Congress or published in the Federal Register. In its opinion, the GAO expressed a broad stance on the reach of the CRA over agency guidance, stating that “CRA requirements apply to general statements of policy which, by definition, are not legally binding.” This holds open the door for the CRA to be used to disapprove agency guidance that is much older than sixty days, as was the case with the Indirect Auto Lending Guidance.